According to Akamai’s Q3 2015 rankings, the average downlink Internet speed in Ukraine is 7.3 Mbps and the average uplink speed is 7 Mbps.
Population & Internet Availability
The current population of Ukraine is approximately 45 million. Over 45% of residents have access to the Internet, especially broadband connections.
Main Types of Internet Access
Ukrainian residents can access the following types of Internet services:
– ADSL Internet
– Fiber Optic Internet (limited availability)
– Wireless Internet
Internet Access – ADSL
ADSL Internet is the most popular way of accessing the Internet in Ukraine. It is available both in bigger and smaller cities; however, in the latter cities, services provided are not as reliable and affordable as in the former cities. This broadband technology is preferred by both ISPs and customers alike because it does not require dedicated infrastructure, as in the case of fiber-optic internet, thus costs on both ends are reduced significantly. Downlink and uplink speeds are quite reasonable, in most cases reaching 20 Mbps downlink and 10 Mbps uplink respectively. However, high demand for high internet speeds has brought up the idea of deploying newer and more reliable broadband infrastructure (i.e. fiber-optic), which can support speeds of 100 Mbps and upward.
Internet Access – Fiber-optic
Fiber-optic internet is available mostly in bigger cities, notably in Kyiv, the capital city of Ukraine. Fiber-optic services are provided by a wide array of companies, including but not limited to Ukrtelecom, Lucky Net, and Kyivstar. In Kyiv, the fiber-optic infrastructure is well developed, and will soon be able to replace ADSL infrastructure completely. Regarding other smaller cities, the fiber-optic infrastructure sees limited availability due to lack of demand for high speed internet.
Internet Access – Wireless Internet
Less than half of Ukraine’s population have access to the Internet, of which even less are connected to the internet via fixed broadband methods. Users who cannot access the Internet via fixed broadband methods for various reasons usually resort to fixed wireless internet. This technology falls under the same “broadband” category as DSL, cable, and fiber-optic. The difference lies in the former broadband connection being a little more expensive than the latter broadband connections due to the technology used.
Internet Censorship in Ukraine
Ukrainian residents can access the Internet freely. There are no reported governmental attempts to censor the internet save for content that is universally illegal (e.g. drug trafficking-related content). In December 2010, the OpenNet Initiative (ONI) found little or no evidence of internet filtering in all four areas monitored over a certain period of time (political, social, conflict/security, and Internet tools). The constitution and laws provide for freedom of speech and press; however, the government does not always respect these rights in practice. For instance, law enforcement bodies are widely known to monitor internet user activity without appropriate legal authority. Controversial bloggers and diverse satirical online publications are the most affected. This holds true especially in the ongoing Ukrainian crisis, which has had severe negative effects on internet freedom.